Serdar Balcı

Introduction to Pathology

Serdar BALCI, MD


Study (logos)

Disease (pathos)

Literally translated, ** pathology __ is the study (__ logos **) of disease ( pathos, __ suffering)__

Pathology uses

Pathology tries to explain whys and wherefores

Is there any microorganism around?

Is the changes in morphology caused by microbes constant in certain diseases?

What is the main cause of death in a patient or victim?

What is the mechanism taken place during the death?

Which disease causes how much survival?

Are the subgroups of diseases differ in terms of survival?

Pathology is the bridge

The bridge between the basic sciences and clinics

The scientific foundation for all of medicine

Did you hear about “evidence based medicine”?

Then we will send you to the clinics

Systemic pathology will be the topic of next year

You should know the roots to understand general pathology

General Pathology

Systemic pathology

Types of diseases

Underwood’s Pathology: A Clinical Approach , Sixth Edition

Underwood’s Pathology: A Clinical Approach , Sixth Edition

Studies of Pathology



Molecular and Morphologic Changes

Functional Derangements and Clinical Manifestations

Etiology (Why disease arise?)

Origin of a disease

Underlying causes and modifying factors

Etiology or Cause

Causes and Risk Factors

Alterations in Rb protein function leads to cervical cancer

HPV is the cause of alterations in Rb function

Smoking is the risk factor for cervical cancer

One etiology for one disease?

Genetic background (susceptibility) + environmental effects

Wheater’s Basic Pathology: A Text, Atlas and Review of Histopathology , Fifth Edition

Pathogenesis (How disease arise?)

Steps in the development of disease

How etiologic factors trigger cellular and molecular changes

How these changes give rise to the specific functional and structural abnormalities


How the disease forms in sequence

Figure 10-19, 10-20 from Robbins

Sequence of events in cystic fibrosis and various clinical manifestations

How the cancer forms in sequence

Figure 17-49 from Robbins

Sequence of events in adenoma carcinoma sequence of colon cancers

Molecular and Morphologic Changes

Stevens, Alan, MB BS, FRCPath - Core Pathology

Functional Derangements and Clinical Manifestations



Structural changes

Functional abnormalities

Clinical features



Pathology also deals with Epidemiology

Especially in Cancer Registry

**SEER, Globocan, ICD, SNOMED … **

The founder of modern pathology Dr.Virchow was an active politican in Berlin and dealt with public health

Diagnostic Pathology

Wheater’s Basic Pathology: A Text, Atlas and Review of Histopathology , Fifth Edition

Macroscopic examination



Cytological preparation of a fine needle aspirate of a breast carcinoma. The specimen consists of dissociated cells with no surrounding tissue.


Wheater’s Basic Pathology: A Text, Atlas and Review of Histopathology , Fifth Edition

Who is a pathologist?

A person deals with and earns money from pathology

How can one become a pathologist in Turkey?

After you become MD

Take the TUS exam

4 year residency

Are there different kind of pathologist in the world?

Anatomic pathology

Clinical pathology

Molecular pathology

Veterinary pathology

Are there any subspecialities?





GI pathology

Surgical pathology

Molecular pathology


How will this course go on?

Theoretical lectures

Laboratory hours

How will you be graded?

Committee exams

Laboratory exams

You will be supplied

Notes for laboratory studies

You will get a version of lecture notes

How can I study pathology?

The books of medicine

Some books to study pathology

**1) Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease **

Kumar, Abbas, Aster. Saunders ISBN-10: 1416031219

2) Rubin’s Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine

Rubin, Strayer, Rubin. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ISBN-10: 1605479683

3)Pathology: The Big Picture

Kemp, Burns, Brown. McGraw-Hill Medical ISBN-10: 0071477489

4) Board Review Series Pathology

Schneider, Szanto. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ISBN-10: 0781779413

5) Pathology Secrets

Damjanov. Mosby ISBN-10: 1560536225

6) Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology

Klatt. Saunders ISBN-10: 1437701701

7) Robbins and Cotran Review of Pathology

Klatt, Kumar. Saunders ISBN-10: 1416049304

8) Atlas of Histopathology

Damjanov. JP Medical Publishers ISBN: 9789350251881

9) Temel Patoloji

Mocan Kuzey, Özdamar, Zergeroğlu. Güneş Kitabevi ISBN: 9752771041

Note that buying any book is not obligatory in this class. These are some suggestions for present or future studies.

Medicine is an ever changing science so the trends in the books.

Some web sites

Ludwig, Handbook of Autopsy Practice, Humana Press

Rudolf Virchow

“proposed that injury to the smallest living unit of the body, the cell, is the basis of all disease”


Search for two Turkish Pathologists:

Hamdi Suat Aknar, Kamile Şevki Mutlu